❮Reading❯ ➳ De revolutionibus orbium caelestium ➬ Author Nicolaus Copernicus – E17streets4all.co.uk New to our On the Shoulders of Giants series this groundbreaking work of astronomy proposed a heliocentric universe in which planets orbited the sun daring to challenge the Ptolemaic ideal of the eart New to our On the Shoulders of Giants series this groundbreaking work of astronomy proposed a heliocentric universe in which planets orbited the sun daring to challenge the Ptolemaic ideal of the earth as the center of the universe This essay by Copernicus revolutionized the way we look at the earth's placement in the universe and paved the way for many great scientists including Galileo and Isaac Newton whose theories stemmed from this model Featuring a biography of Copernicus and an accessible enlightening introduction both written by the renowned physicist Stephen Hawking On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres provides a fascinating look at the theories which shaped our modern understanding of astronomy and physics.
Mikołaj Kopernik Polish astronomer and mathematician who as a student studied canon law mathematics and medicine at Cracow Bologna Rome Padua and Ferrara Copernicus became interested in astronomy and published an early description of his heliocentric model of the solar system in Commentariolus In this model the sun Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy was actually not exactly the center of the solar system but was slightly offset from the center using a device invented by Ptolemy known as the euant point The idea that the Sun Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy was the center of the solar system was not new similar theories had been proposed by Aristarchus and Nicholas of Cusa but Copernicus also worked out his system in full mathematical detail Even though the mathematics in his description was not any simpler than Ptolemy's it reuired fewer basic assumptions By postulating only the rotation of the Earth Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy revolution about the sun Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy and tilt of Earth's Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy rotational axis Copernicus could explain the observed motion of the heavens However because Copernicus retained circular orbits his system reuired the inclusion of epicycles Unfortunately out of fear that his ideas might get him into trouble with the church Copernicus delayed publication of themIn Copernicus took on Rheticus as a student and handed over his manuscript to him to write a popularization of the heliocentric theory published as Narratio Prima in Shortly before his death Rheticus convinced Copernicus to allow publication of his original manuscript and De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium was published in Copernicus proposed his theory as a true description not just a theory to save appearances Unlike Buridan and Oresme he did not think that any theory which saved appearances was valid instead believing that there could only be a single true theory When the work was published however Andreas Osiander added an unauthorized preface stating that the contents was merely a device to simplify calculationsCopernicus adapted physics to the demands of astronomy believing that the principles of Ptolemy's system were incorrect not the math or observations He was the first person in history to create a complete and general system combining mathematics physics and cosmology Ptolemy for instance had treated each planet separately Copernicus's system was taught in some universities in the s but had not permeated the academic world until approximately Some people among whom John Donne and William Shakespeare were the most influential feared Copernicus's theory feeling that it destroyed hierarchal natural order which would in turn destroy social order and bring about chaos Indeed some people such as Bruno used Copernicus's theory to justify radical theological viewsBefore Copernicus formulated his theory of the solar system astronomy in Europe had stagnated After the Almagest had been translated into Latin European astronomers such as the Austrian mathematician Georg von Peurbach and the German astronomer Regiomontanus proposed no new theories attempting instead to refine the flawed system already laid out by Ptolemy The astronomy textbook used for teaching was still The Sphere the same book that had been in use since the s Rather than formulating new theories astronomers had busied themselves in saving appearances which consisted of trying to patch it up Ptolemy's cumbersome and inaccurate model Copernicus however wiped the slate clean in a single broad stroke and proposed a fundamentally different model in which the planets all circled the Sun Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy in De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium While radically different from Ptolemy's model Copernicus's heliocentric theory was hardly an original idea.
- 408 pages
- De revolutionibus orbium caelestium
- Nicolaus Copernicus
- 19 February 2015 Nicolaus Copernicus